Repairs and Remedial

Concrete has excellent durability, and normally requires little or no maintenance, but good performance depends on good designs, details, materials and workmanship.

Why then should repair be necessary? The answer lies in a subjective consideration of the facts concerning any particular concrete unit that has been deemed unsatisfactory in its present condition. The deficiency may be structural, cosmetic or some combination of both.

Unsatisfactory performance in service could arise as a consequence faulty design, the use of unsuitable materials, improper workmanship, undue exposure to abnormally aggressive environments, excessive structural loadings or any combination of such factors.

If or when repair and restoration of concrete becomes necessary, the objective of any remedial work should be to return the concrete to a satisfactory condition of structural adequacy, durability, and/or appearance at a reasonable cost (commensurate with the benefit to be derived).

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A rational repair programme should start with a diagnosis, or evaluation of the damage, and then progress through selection of materials and method to preparation of the deficient area and, finally, to application of the repair. If each of these steps is undertaken correctly, and at the proper time, then a satisfactory repair will be obtained 

Selection Guide to Repair Techniques and Materials 
Deterioration Repair Technique Repair Material
Cavitation
  • Coating
  • Concrete replacement
  • Jacketing
  • Shotcreting
  • Prepacked concrete
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Jacketing materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Polymers
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete
Cracks, active
  • Caulking
  • Jacketing
  • Stitching
  • Stressing
  • Elastomeric sealants
  • Jacketing materials
Cracks, dormant
  • Caulking
  • Coating
  • Convential replacement
  • Dry Packing
  • Grinding
  • Injection
  • Jacketing
  • Shotcreting
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Stressing
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Dry Pack
  • Elastomeric sealants
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Fast setting materials
  • Jacketing materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Portland cement grout/mortar/concrete
Crazing
  • Coating
  • Grinding
  • Shotcreting
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Fast setting materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Linseed Oil
  • Portland cement grout/mortar/concrete
Dusting
  • Coating
  • Grinding
  • Jacketing
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Total replacement
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Fast setting materials
  • Jacketing materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Linseed Oil
  • Floor hardeners
Erosion (see Cavitation; Holes, small; Holes, large; and scaling)
Form Scabbing
  • Coating
  • Convential replacement
  • Dry packing
  • Shotcreting
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Total replacement
  • Dry Pack
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Fast setting materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Portland cement grout/mortar/concrete
Holes, small
  • Coating
  • Dry Packing
  • Grinding
  • Shotcreting
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Dry Pack
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Fast setting materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Portland cement grout/mortar
Holes, large
  • Coating
  • Concrete replacement
  • Shotcreting
  • Prepacked concrete
  • Total replacement
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Fast setting materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete
Honeycombing
  • Concrete/mortar replacement
  • Dry Packing
  • Prepacked Concrete
  • Total replacement
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Dry Packing
  • Expanding mortar
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete
Permeability
  • Coating
  • Jacketing
  • Shotcreting
  • Prepacked concrete
  • Total replacement
  • Bentonite
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Jacketing materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete
  • Silicones
Popouts
  • Coating
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Total replacement
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Linseed oil
  • Portland cement grout/mortar
Sand streaking
  • Concrete/Mortar replacement
  • Prepacked concrete
  • Total replacement
  • Expanding mortar
  • Portland cement grout/mortar/concrete
Scaling
  • Coating
  • Grinding
  • Jacketing
  • Shotcreting
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Total replacement
  • Bentonite
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Fast setting materials
  • Fibrous concrete
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Linseed oil
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete
  • Silicones (vertical surfaces only)
Spalling
  • Coating
  • Concrete replacement
  • Grinding
  • Jacketing
  • Mortar replacement
  • Shotcreting
  • Prepacked concrete
  • Thin-bonded or unbonded resurfacing
  • Total replacement
  • Bituminous coatings
  • Epoxies or other polymers
  • Expanding mortar
  • Fast setting materials
  • Latex-modified concrete
  • Linseed oil
  • Portland cement mortar/concrete